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Once nature was an object, you could do more or less anything you wanted to it. Whatever ethical constraints remained against possession and extraction had been removed, much to the delight of capital. Land became property. Living beings became things. Ecosystems became resources.
And because the rise of capitalism is cast as an expression of innate human nature – human selfishness and greed – problems like inequality and ecological breakdown seem inevitable and virtually impossible to change
We tend to take the idea of growth for granted because it sounds so natural. And it is. All living organisms grow. But in nature there is a self-limiting logic to growth: organisms grow to a point of maturity, and then maintain a state of healthy equilibrium.
This is the thing about ecology: everything is interconnected. It’s difficult for us to grasp how this works, because we are used to thinking of the world in terms of individual parts rather than complex wholes. In fact, that’s even how we´ve been taught to think of ourselves – as individuals. We´ve forgotten how to pay attention to the relationship between things